This article focuses on engineering aspects of electronics. An electronic component is any physical entity in an electronic system used to affect the electrons or their associated fields in a manner consistent with the intended function of the electronic system. In an integrated circuit or IC, the components and interconnections are formed on the same substrate, typically a semiconductor such as silicon or (less commonly) gallium arsenide. An electronic component is any physical entity in an electronic system used to affect the electrons or their associated fields in a manner consistent with the intended function of the electronic system. Many countries and regions like United States, Singapore, Canada, Greece, Italy, Denmark, Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway, Ireland, Iceland, Portugal, Israel, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, Estonia, Australia, New Zealand, Germany, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Finland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and France are generally considered high-tech societies in relation to other countries, since it is common for its citizens having access to technology that is at the cutting edge, in consumer's terms, as can parts of China and India.
Vacuum tubes (Thermionic valves) were one of the earliest electronic components. From that time on transistors were almost exclusively used for computer logic and peripherals. As digital circuits become more complex, issues of time delay, logic races, power dissipation, non-ideal switching, on-chip and inter-chip loading, and leakage currents, become limitations to the density, speed and performance.
ordered all future IBM products to use transistors in their design. These leads connect to create an electronic circuit with a particular function (for example an amplifier, radio receiver, or oscillator). Electronics deals with electrical circuits that involve active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes and integrated circuits, and associated passive electrical components and interconnection technologies. (Memory based on flip-flops is known as static random-access memory (SRAM). Today, most electronic devices use semiconductor components to perform electron control. Components may be packaged singly, or in more complex groups as integrated circuits. Analog circuit analysis employs Kirchhoff's circuit laws: all the currents at a node (a place where wires meet), and the voltage around a closed loop of wires is 0. However, this is something generally unattainable by the definition comprising its scarcity among every technology available. The opposite of high tech is low technology, referring to simple, often traditional or mechanical, technology; for example, a calculator is a low-tech calculating device.